France adopted the new calendar on Monday, 20 December
1582, following Sunday, 9 December 1582.
The Protestant Dutch provinces of Holland and Zeeland also
adopted it in December of that year.
Most non-Catholic countries initially objected to adopting
a Catholic invention. Although Scotland adopted the Gregorian calendar in the
year 1600, England and thereby the rest of the British Empire (including the
eastern part of what is now the United States) did not adopt the Gregorian
calendar until 1752; by which time it was necessary to correct by eleven
days (Wednesday, 2 September 1752 being followed by Thursday, 14 September
1752) to account for 29 February 1700 (Julian). A few years later, when the son
of the Earl of Macclesfield (who had been influential in passing the calendar
law) ran for a seat in Parliament in Oxfordshire as a Whig in 1754,
dissatisfaction with the calendar reforms was one of a number of issues raised
by his Tory opponents. When in 1755, after William Hogarth created a painting
(and an engraved print from the painting) loosely based on these elections (in
which the campaign slogan "Give us our Eleven Days" appears), this resulted in
Hogarth's painting being later misunderstood, giving rise to many apocryphal
stories of widespread riots because of the calendar change. There was a great
division, among the peoples of the world, which led to much fighting and
bloodshed. Bigotry, discrimination, inequality, prejudice, and unfairness was
rampant. Arrogance and avarice--an insatiable greed for wealth--was the order
of the day. There was a disappropriate number of the wealthy (2-5%). The
majority of the people were poor (95-98%) and, due to rigid stratification on
the part of the upper class, there was no middle class. There was no sharing of
the wealth, and most of the poor were forced to live way below the poverty
line. Homeless and starving people, many women and children, roamed the
streets. There were no programs and services for the poor, and precious human
beings were dying--with absolutely no caring, or concern, from the wealthy. The
upper class showed complete disdain for the poor--and blatantly took the
position the disabled, the old, and sickly unemployed did not deserve to live.
No matter how dire the circumstances, if you were poor, you were required to
work. No exceptions for the old, or for the young. If plagues or starvation did
not take the poor unfortunates, the unbearably hot deserts and the frigidity of
cold climates did. Without a word, their pathetic bodies were simply carried
away, without benefit of a decent burial--and they were not given any
dignity or respect. The poor were treated as indentured slaves, and the rich
were their cruel masters.
It was a time of deepening drought in Australia,
stronger typhoons in Asia, and floods in Latin America. And,
British climate scientists began to predict that a
resurgent El Niño climate trend, combined with higher levels of
greenhouse gases could touch off a fresh round of ecological disasters
and make the world's hottest years on record. Even moderate, El Niño
warming events were enough to push the global temperatures over the top. The
warmest year on record, in 1998, was a time when the average global temperature
was 1.2°F higher than the long-term average of 57°F. Though such a
change appears small, incremental differences can, for example, add to the
ferocity of storms by evaporating more steam off the ocean. And, climate
say that there is a 60% chance that the average global
temperature, in the future, will match or break the record. And, this
allegation supported by Britain's Meteorological Office is proven
of the high temperatures that were being felt
El Niño, which is now underway in the Pacific
Ocean and is expected to last until May, occurs irregularly. But when it does,
winters in Southeast Asia tend to become milder, summers in Australia get
drier, and Pacific storms can be more intense. And, rising temperatures were
already wreaking an agricultural havoc.
Australia, in 2002, was struggling through its worst
drought on record and, in the world's future, the impact on farmers would prove
to devastating. The country registered its smallest wheat harvest in a decade,
food prices were rising, and severe water restrictions were put on thousands of
farmers at risk, starving, and
at the point of bankruptcy's loaded gun.
In other cases, El Niño's effects were more
ambiguous. Rains linked to the phenomenon led to bumper crops in Argentina in
1998, but floods elsewhere in Latin America devastated subsistence
El Niño also did some good. It tended to take the
punch out of the Atlantic hurricane seasons by generating crosswinds that
ripped storms apart good news for orange growers, for example.
But, the short-term effects of global warming, on crop
production, were very uneven. And, climate systems researchers began to issue
warnings about making definitive predictions regarding any one season's
Clearly, the cumulative effect of El Niño, and
global warming, were taking the Earth's temperatures to record heights.
El Niño was an independent variable, and the
underlying trends in the warming of the Earth, almost certainly, were a result
of the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Another more immediate effect of the rising temperatures
Australia was under fire for refusing to link the
country's drought to global warming. Britain underlined the gap between the
government's rhetoric and action.
Environmental groups are saying, as of this star date,
that new danger warnings are adding weight to the dire need for controlling
greenhouse gases. But, will world governments unite to heed the warnings?
2001 has been Britain's warmest year since 1659, and
government economists are estimating the effects of climate change. Already,
some economists are saying that the effects will eventually cost nations 5% to
20% of their yearly, gross domestic products.
Figures for 2001 are not yet complete, but temperatures
are high enough to rank among the top 10 hottest years on record. What will the
world's future hold? Only time knows the answer. But, it is certain that
dangerous deeds with the climate are now amassing.
As of this star date, we need to put the energy and
priority into climate change, and put an end to wars. To make amends to restore
peace, and mark an end to all wars. As a Stone Man, I stand here naked,
makes me think.
I stand here, and wonder. Were we successful? As
reporters from human being's past, we cannot answer the question that I am
posing to you. But you, the readers at future's time portal can answer our
question. We can only surmise that your world, like ours, will be swept away in
a sea of change.